JavaScript is a high-level, dynamic, type less and interpreted programming language. It is amongst the top 3 pillars of the World Wide Web contact alongwith HTML and CSS. It is utilised by most of the websites worldwide and is supported by all current day web browsers without plug-ins.


In the year 1995, JavaScript was first called Mocha and then renamed as LiveScript before finally getting its name JavaScript after getting a trademark license from Sun in 1995. At that time, the language Java was gaining popularity and as a marketing strategy, this script was renamed as JavaScript as a marketing ploy. It was invented first in May 1995 by Brendan Eich, who wrote it down in just 10 days while working at Netscape.

JavaScript was made when Internet was limited by speed and JS was needed to solve this strained process. The language works on end-user computers, and creates more responsive websites for users and websites that are cheaper in terms of server traffic.

The growth of JavaScript:

In the year 1996 – 97, European Computer Manufacturers Association (ECMA) processed JavaScript to create benchmark specifications. This resulted in creation of ECMAScript and JavaScript resulted at its most effective implementation.

Further editions such as ECMAScript 2 in 1998 and ECMAScript 3 in 1999, form the foundations of the modern day JavaScript. Around the year 2000, further editions the JavaScript 2 or original EcmaSript4 work were created. Initially, Microsoft appeared to participate and even implemented some of the proposals in their language. However, Microsoft had no serious intentions to cooperate and implement proper JavaScript in Internet Explorer, even though there were no alternative proposals. This resulted around 2003 in closure of JavaScript 2 / EcmaScript4.

In the year 2005, Brendan Eich and Mozilla rejoined ECMA and commenced work on E4X, ECMA-357, which came from ex-Microsoft employees at BEA. This led to working jointly with Macromedia, who were implementing E4X in ActionScript 3 (a resultant of JavaScript2/EcmaScript4).

In 2007, there was chaos between the various players and Microsoft and Yahoo got together and opposed forces with Microsoft to oppose ECMAScript 4, which resulted in effort in direction of ECMAScript 3.1.

Magic with JavaScript:

An interesting thing happened around that time, developer and open source communities got in congruence to work on technologies with JavaScript as its backbone. This was a result of white papers called Ajax, released by James Garrett. JavaScript was the platform on which web applications and data could be loaded in the background. This would circumvent the requirement of for full page reloads. In effect, applications became more dynamic. The rebirth of JavaScript took place and it was released with libraries like Prototype, jQuery, Dojo, Mootools, etc

In 2008, the sparring opponents came to a common ground. The agenda called Harmony resulted in the eventual agreement to rename ECMAScript 3.1 to ECMAScript 5 and drive the language further.

Evolution of the programming language:

Past decade

JavaScript enhanced the web interface and added response to the web page. When we fill an empty form, the search box gives us suggestions as we type and create ease and convenience for user. The search box suggested results as we typed, information changed constantly without user intervention (stock market tickers), we obtained content on-demand, and facilitated animations to gain user attention to a specific portion of a page, or to make the page easier to use. If it had not been for JavaScript, this would not have been possible.

However, up until 10 years ago, JavaScript was not considered a serious technology but with the arrival of jQuery in 2006, things changed drastically especially, the UI development landscape forever, and made the building of tailor-made and complex UI elements a breeze. Websites became more interactive and involved, while development became efficient. But JavaScript apps were still missing in their ability to organize and influence data in the context of enterprise and commercial environments and in systematic code management, quickly creating room for well-defined application architectures.

The past 5 years

JavaScript uses the Model View Controller (MVC) framework on the client side. Various distinct and clean application architectures were created such as Angular.js, Backbone.js, Ember.js, and React.js.

The success of these application architectures started with Backbone.js. Backbone.js architecture is based on a MVC approach that greatly enhances managing and scaling your code. Backbone.js is simple to learn yet significantly stream lines data synchronization between your web application and server. Its’ inbuilt underscore.js library helps to prevent detailed code writing and saves development time tremendously.

Later came AngularJS’s whose popularity and acceptance was unmatchable. ReactJS was developed at Facebook, is taking the lead from AngularJS. You Tube and The Guardian shifted to Angular, clearly indicating that Angular is strong enough to be able to scale to the most demanding of commercial environments.

Ember.js too possesses a vibrant community of users and contributors and users.

All these frameworks share equal success in making truly complex user-facing applications a reality, and are radically changing the way we think about JavaScript development.

Going real cross-platform

JavaScripts is very versatile for working on various applications such as Android, iOS, Windows, BlackBerry and even the desktop becomes no different than developing native apps. It was extremely expensive, if not impossible until recently to think of a real cross-platform app. Each platform had a proprietary technology that calls for a separate code repo for every single device, thereby pushing the cost and effort for cross-platform development in every possible way.

Evolution of Server-Side Java Script

In the past couple of years, the web is witnessing many data-intensive, rich internet and high real-time applications such as multiplayer online games, virtual meeting tools, and instant messaging engines. The server needs a responder to manipulate and process such requests and update the client. The need of the hour is SSJS (Server side JavaScript). The problem was solved with the entry of Node Js, which is a very simple and lightweight framework. It is already utilised by giants like Walmart, Yahoo, and PayPal in their critical user facing business applications.

JavaScript and Databases

Over the past three decades, RDBMS remained dominant database. Subsequently, we have had unstructured DB (NoSQL). Finally came JSON – JavaScript Object Notation. JSON is a lightweight data-interchange format and is a natural fit.


JavaScript has evolved considerably over a period of more than a decade. It serves all kinds of customers – the retail end-users, corporates, large scale applications, etc. It is like a busy road – always busy, bustling, dirty, and full of diversity. It has evolved slowly in different manners over the past. Slow evolution that is here to stay!